The Time of Simple Profession
The following of Christ, though it has its beginning from divine initiative, requires an openness and a human response and commitment. We Augustinians respond to this initiative out of our specific charism. It is a following which is concretized in history and in dedication to others. For this reason it is necessary to discern "the signs of the times."
In today's world:
a) We are living today, as has always been so, in a time of crisis and disorientation, of serious difficulty, of personal inconsistency in the face of radical, definite and clear choices to be made, of a tendency toward mediocrity and hedonism, etc. For example, resistance to the acceptance of definite commitments and a systematic escape from sacrifice.
b) But we are also living at a time of hope and positive affirmation of the essential values of religious life and its consequences, a time of heartfelt enthusiasm and its effects on community life and apostolic service, of better organization and dialogue within and between communities, of greater transparency of life, etc. This is evident especially in sensitivity towards the religious sphere and, above all, toward the needs of the community and of the most needy.
By its nature, Religious Life is the radical, explicit, following of Jesus the Master, with a commitment toward the values of the Kingdom within the Church and in harmony with the specific charisms of each Founder. Concretely, Augustinian Religious Life is characterized by:
- The constant search for God by means of a deep interior life (Cf. Const. 32-35; R.I. 7a) and a practical love of neighbor (Cf. Const. 23,39-41; R.I. 7a).
- Love for the truth which requires sincere dedication to study (Cf. R.I. 7b).
- The living of the "holy undertaking" of a chaste life in community, in keeping with the model of the Jerusalem community (Cf. Acts. 4,32-35; Serm. 355,2; R.I. 7c).
- Deep faith and special love for the Church as mother (Cf. Const. 54; R.I. 7d).
- Formation in an integral way and throughout one's lifetime...in the various dimensions of our life as: human beings, as Christians, as Augustinians, and as apostolic ministers (Cf. In ep. Jo. 1.2; Serm. 341,1,1; Const. 9,10,41,162,157; R.I. 8).
In this formative process, the Church and the Order have given special importance to the time of simple profession, seeing it as fundamental for the application, interiorization and conclusion of the necessary and definitive syntheses of all personal, community and charismatic experiences: union with Christ now and foerever, through the profession of the evangelical counsels, following more closely the Lord who did not hesitate to humble himself, becoming poor for us, and who did not come to be served but to serve (Cf. Ph 2,4-9; I Cor. 8-9; Mt. 20,20; R.I. 5).
Initial formation during the time of temporary profession, is defined as a vital process which begins with religious profession and ends at one's unconditional commitment to God through solemn profession. During this period the friars "take a more intimate part in a community that shares faith, life and work, and in all that Augustinian life implies” (R.I. 100; 105). Its central objective is preparation of the person for solemn profession (R.I.100), in which he is totally consecrated to God in the following of Christ, for the service of the mission (Cf. V.C.65; CdC 18).
Characteristics of this formation period
It is for a specific period of time and is of particular importance. Profession marks a before and an after in the process of religious consecration. This "yes" to the Lord's call by taking personal responsibility for maturing in one's vocation is the inescapable duty of all who have been called. One's whole life must be open to the action of the Holy Spirit, travelling the road of formation with generosity, and accepting in faith the means of grace offered by the Lord and the Church" (V.C. 65), participating actively in the life of the community (Cf. Const. 7-15; 112-120; R.I. 101).
It is a privileged time of:
- Formation directed, above all, to "conformity to the Lord Jesus in his total self-giving". “It is a path of gradual identification with the attitude of Christ towards the Father” (V.C. 65).
- Growth and the exchange of experiences and of life in community through faith and interactive dialogue among the friars and the formators, necessary means for choosing the constitutive values of such a life, and the ESSENTIAL VALUE: Christ, who is the binding element of the formation structure, and the radical following of him, by consecration, the vows, community, the mission of the Church and our specific Augustinian charism (Cf. R.I. 102).
- Personal maturation. Formation must touch "the reality of the entire person in every aspect of his individuality" ... in a way that is complete: personal maturity and consistency (identity), the psychological aspects (relationships, affectivity), the intellectual (knowledge, ideas), the communitarian aspects (being with, community), faith (general and specific spirituality), service (living for the mission and the specific charism).
- Accepting the charism proper to the Order (Cf. V.C.6).
- Unconditional and definitive vocational commitment to God in solemn profession (Cf. R.I. 100).
These aspects are necessary and need to be integrated in order that the TOTAL FORMATION PROCESS be balanced, coherent and significant (Cf. V.C. 65).
SOME BASIC CRITERIA REGARDING THE TIME OF TEMPORARY PROFESSION
There is a fundamental 'given' in initial formation which it is useful to emphasize in a more explicit way: Consecrated Life in itself is formation. Consecrated life is a slow process of the gestation of the new man (the "birth pangs" of which Paul speaks), created by God in the image of the Son and called by means of a vocation to follow Jesus to the point of assuming the image or form of Christ which renders the following of Christ that is proper to religious more concrete. In this way formation comes to be a theological way of thinking of Consecrated Life. And from this point of view, initial formation can only fulfil its function within the context of religious life understood as formation.
Ongoing formation is the original and indispensable formation. This is “an intrinsic requirement of religious consecration... No one can be exempt from applying himself to his human and religious growth; just as no one can be presumptuous about himself and live with self-sufficiency”(V.C. 69). Ongoing formation touches all cycles of life: the first years of immersion in the active apostolate and community life (passing from a life of instruction to one of complete responsibility in work and community; the middle age with its risk of routine and the temptation toward discouragement; the age of maturity with the danger of a certain individualism: rigidity, closure, passivity (Cf. V.C. 70) in all of its dimensions: spiritual, human , fraternal, apostolic, cultural, professional and charismatic (Cf. V.C. 71).
Consequently, it is a mistake to treat Initial Formation without reference to Ongoing Formation. That is to say, there is not first Initial Formation, and then Ongoing Formation. The basic reality is Ongoing Formation, and only starting with this notion can the various periods of formation in the different phases of religious life be distinguished. It is most important that every consecrated person be formed with the ability to continue learning throughout his entire life (Cf. RI 120) and allow himself to be formed each day of his life (Cf. CdC., 15-16). In houses of formation it is a question of preparing individuals for the type of Augustinian life they will experience in the communities to which they will eventually be destined.
The principal formative pedagogy is personal/spiritual accompaniment. (V.C. 66), even before one's community experience. It should never be simply one means among many. Initial formation is not exclusively self-formation. It is important to be clear about this. As much as the person in formation is the primary agent of his own formation (P.I. 29), he never forms himself in isolation, rather, he is formed in communion with others. He must be assisted in “having himself be formed by Christ” (P.I. 30-32), the Interior Teacher. If the formator does not devote time to dialoguing with the professed – through periodic interviews, as we are accustomed to say - “they will pass through formation with the best of good will, but formation will not pass through them.” Success in this area demands the openness and willingness of the formandi. Not to strive for this end will result in initial formation not being a true living experience, but rather a mere institutional requirement.
CHALLENGES TO BE MET DURING THIS PERIOD OF FORMATION
During the present formation course important fundamental themes have been dealt with, all of which are necessary and mutually complementary, and which must be interpreted in a unified way. So as not to be repetitive, here we will focus on some of the most important aspects, while recognizing that in formation all of the parts come together in a coherent and harmonious whole. We mention the following:
1. Primacy of the spiritual life: Consecrated Life is life lived according to the Spirit. The spiritual life has primacy of place. Only the Spirit makes this life intelligible and is able to sustain it. “It is necessary to allow oneself to be led by the Spirit to an ever new discovery of God and his Word, to a burning love for Him and for humanity, to a new understanding of the charism that one has received”. (CdC. 20).
2. Jesus Christ reveals the love which God has for us. He gives us the twofold gift of experiencing that we are loved by God, and of being able to love him without limit, even to the point of giving our lives generously. Our religious life is a participation in this eternal love of God expressed in Christ. This experience, which is essential, cannot be taken for granted. It must be cultivated, lived, expressed, accompanied, which means, at least, that personal maturity and integrity must be worked at, as well as common prayer, common life, shared faith, fraternal dialogue and corresponsibility, the capacity for and openness to forgiveness, fraternal correction, sincere and sustained commitment in the work of the community, etc. “It is necessary to affirm once again that the basis and core of religious life is a theological relationship and not an ecclesial, pastoral or social one. All of these other thing are integral to religious life, but they are the result of the essential element. Religious life is anchored in Jesus Christ and in nothing else.” Without a personal experience of God nothing is done. This shows the need for a consistent rhythm of personal prayer. During the time of formation the professed engage in prayer supported by the rhythm of the community. This is not sufficient. During this stage a habit of prayer must be developed. Without “personal prayer” common prayer will not be enough for them in the future (the greater number of communities have an insufficient rhythm of prayer life). Without this we will be forming mediocre religious, even as regards fraternity and the apostolate.
3. The mystical and theological dimension of community: the consecrated community is:
A Gift of the Spirit: it has its source in the love of God diffused in human hearts through the Spirit (Cf. Rm 5,5). It is a true family united in the name of the Lord. We are a community that lives from the Spirit.
A Mystery of love, communion and relationship, which has its roots in the very heart of the Trinity. The man who has been called has been invited to enter into intimate communion and relationship with Him (filiation) and has been summoned, called to interpersonal communion with others (universal fraternity). We religious are called to be experts in communion (V.F.C. 8-10) and communication (R.I.28).
A living sign of the mystery of the Church and a visible manifestation of communion with God and with others for the life of the world (Cf. V.F.C 8-9). This is an expression of the ecclesial community (V.F.C. 10).
The religious community “is itself as a theological reality the object of contemplation” (D.C. 18). This dimension is the soul of the religious community, but when its centrality is not recognized the other dimensions are seriously affected. When this happens “the underlying reasons for 'forming community' and for the patient building up of fraternal life are irretrievably lost: Eucharist, personal and community prayer, liturgical prayer, celebration of the liturgy of the hours in common, apostolic commitment” (V.F.C. 11-20; R.I 108-109).
Community life plays a privileged part in all Institutes and at every stage in the life of the religious themselves (Cf. P.I. 26). For us Augustinians community life “is at the very heart of our identity and charism” (R.I. 76). “It is meaningful in itself” (Ibid., 76). It cannot be considered as a mere means to some other end. A utilitarian understanding of common life is contrary to the mind of Saint Augustine (Cf. R.I. 18). Moreover, community is for us, “the principal means of Augustinian formation” (Doc. Dublín, 42 y 38; R.I. 110). For these reasons, common life, and formation for it as a living sign of an authentically human and true fraternity which demonstrates the love of God for all without distinction, must be taken very seriously. This demands serious preparation for “living of our day-to-day common life in a fraternal, dedicated, and joyful manner.” (R.I. 101; 16; Doc. Dublín, 62-67).
4. The challenge of living community realistically. The ideal and perfect community does not exist. The true community exists in the ongoing tension between communion and the striving after it. Thus, the community is also “a school of realism” (R.I. 29) and the place where fraternity is made to happen (V.F.C. 11). We must all keep clearly in mind that the growth of religious “happens through their communities” (V.F.C. 25) and that the ideal of community “is built upon human weakness” (V.F.C. 26). Where there is limitation, imperfection … there will be impediments, difficulties, tensions and conflicts (Cf. R.I. 29). Brothers who are very different, distinct one from another and, at times distant, generate, by their very nature, situations that are confused, difficult and unique. This should not be considered abnormal and frustrating, but as an occasion for gowth, development, and of a positive and hoped for relationship. In the face of this, problems ought to be dealt with at their root, which is the human way. It is important, then, to work insistently with the student in formation on:
- The values of personal authenticity and transparency.
- The adequate management of trials, negative aspects and conflicts. Clarity in the handling of emotions and affectivity.
- Courage in unveiling attitudes that are dogmatic or of indifference.
- Overcoming complexes and extreme and unhealthy issues (treatment with specialists).
- Favoring a happy simplicity (E.T. 39), mutual sincerity and confidence (P.C. 14), the spirit of participation (V.F.C. 27), the capacity for dialogue, honest attachment to a beneficial communitarian discipline (E.T. 39; E.E. 19; V.F.C. 27).
Along this line Fr. Tarsicius J. Van Bavel in his book “Charism-Community”, pp. 141-148, indicates that the obstacles to be overcome to achieve communication are, among others, the images with which we live, our fears and our defense mechanisms: not facing reality, self justification, childish behavior, suspicion, forece emotions, perfectionism and passivity. With this what we want to indicate is that community is not only this, but also this. It must be a priority to deal with these inconveniences, avoiding complacent and pseudo-charitable attitudes. Allowing things to happen because they happen, does not help anything, rather it complicates things. Letting time take care of everything because “it will all pass”, is to escape reality and to live fruitlessly in contexts that are undesirable and displeasing. Not to confront reality as should be done, more than being an escape, is a dangerous deception. It must be insisted that common unity is built up and re-established at the cost of reconciliation: pardon and love (Cf. V.F.C. 26; P.C. 15a).
5. The Importance of Study: “As Augustinians our vocation entails an ongoing commitment to cultivate studies and the search for truth, with love.” (Const. 125), with the requirement of superiors to see that “everyone fulfils this obligation” (Const. 125). This commitment, search and requirement have a three-fold objective: (a) to respond faithfully to the demands of one's own vocation and that of the Order; (b) to know and keep alive the spiritual and doctrinal legacy of Saint Augustine and of the history of the Order; and (c) to respond adequately to the problems and concerns que challenge men of every period of time.
Considering the circumstances of our day which consistently lead to superficiality, extroversion, escapism, etc., it is only just to insist on the place of study as a highly necessary pursuit. The value “love for study” is a priority of the greatest importance at every stage of formation especially in the “explicitly formative period” (VC 68), which extends from first profession to solemn profession. The obligation of systematic, ordered and ongoing study is an irreplaceable task of the Augustinian professed student. During the time of formation he must earn his bread principally by studying and collaborate in the development and growth of the Church, the Order and humanity. Besides the experience of the search for God in common and of God in community there is the experience of study and of work – the study and work of the Augustinian formation student. If all dignified work increases dignity, humanizes one, and makes him a good professional, our work, that is to say, study, does so as well.
Study is also a basic condition for being up to date, faithful to one's vocation, and credible, excellent in technical things, humanitarian, evangelical and Augustinian. Study is work that is ordered, serious, systematic, coherent, with required objectives which are sought and the highest ideals of consecrated life, the values of the Kingdom and of our Augustinian charism which demands attention, concentration ... and TIME.
6. Recovering some practical dimensions of the vows:
Poverty means work. Jesus was both poor and a laborer. He lived a hard, sober and itinerant life supported by a common purse. A free slave of the “treasure-value” of the Kingdom, for which he handed himself over and did so joyfully and willingly. The Kingdom occupied every moment of his life. This experience of “selflessness” impacted his life and his death. God's richness was his in superabundance.
This experience of Jesus invites us to re-organize our free, responsable and evangelical poverty in the light of the attraction of the “treasure” for which we sell off everything: dispossessed of ourselves and of all that we have in order to belong to the Kingdom (Cf. Mt. 13, 44ss). The law of work for the cause of the Kingdom is one of the most genuine and authentic characteristics of a coherent fidelity. For this reason an idle person cannot be a follower of Jesus, nor a religious, nor an Augustinian. La ley del trabajo por la causa del Reino es una de las características más genuinas y auténticas de fidelidad y coherencia.
An Augustinian must be, before all else, a “Gospel Professional”. The first thing is to live as a religious. Secondly, he must be a laborer in his field. During the time of formation, his work is study. And the vow of poverty demands serious and disciplined study for all, naturally, according to each person's talents.
Study and research from part of the most authentic tradition of Augustinian religious life (Cf. R.I. 103; Posidio, Vita Augustini, 3; De Oper. Monach. 29,37). Reading and study are for Augustine essential aspects of contemplation. But, at the same time, they are indispensable requirements for the apostolate as well as for community life. If our relationship with God is not nourished we cannot hope that our relationship with others will be fruitful (Cf. R.I., 65; Serm. 78,3-6). The need for study, attachment to reading, fixed times for study with a view to developing habits of study, must be insisted upon.
Chastity consists in being faithful to one's “first love”. Jesus was chaste for the Kingdom. He lived chastity as a vocation which he had received, freely accepted, deeply loved and which was motivated for the sake of the Kingdom. Consecrated chastity is love, only love, complete love. Only love, and love as passion, makes sense. It is an exclusive, radical and complete love. It is the loving glance of “fascination” for Jesus and for the Kingdom and an invitaiton to love that is offered, consecrated and frutiful. It is passion for God and for others. Our thirst for the fulness of love is centered on Jesus: his person, his style of life, his way of loving and giving himself. It is a theological experience. Our being and our ability to give ourselves can be understood only from this theoligical experience. There is no other foundation but the style of life chosen by Jesus... nothing else.
It is important to make clear, during this stage of initial formation, what is essential. And we know that what is essential can never be taken for granted. To be conscious that we are “inhabited” by One who is love and who loves us with passion, who fills us up, is the underlying experience of feeling one has a vocation, of a chaste and happy life. I think it is good to remember that our young members know almost everything about sexuality, but their knowledge of chastity is usually superficial and especially as regards consecrated chastity.
Formators, realizing that the living of chastity is usually much more decisive than that of the other vows as regards fidelity to one's vocation, have here a more serious and clarifying challenge. God is love (1 Jn. 4, 16), and he is passionate love, inscribed on our hearts through the Spirit which has been given to us (Rom. 5, 5). Love, since it is the work of God, is the basic and irreplaceable nourishment of the human person and of his integral growth. Christ is the revelation of this love (Jn. 3, 16; 1 Jn. 4, 9-11). Passion for God is the heart and soul of consecrated life. Therefore, consecrated life is love, passion and fire. Everything about it is love. And the vows particularly are the expression of love and that which generate love. For this reason, the perseverance of the religious is going to depend, in good part, on clarity and honesty regarding this point. The challenge is to give adequate motivation. To speak grandiosly of chastity only as it applies to the brotherhood or the apostolate or service would be imprecise and deceptive.
Obedience as the work of a team. Jesus, the most liberated man and the greatest personality of history, lived in obedience to the Father, an obedience which, out of love, brought him to deliver his life over even to the cross. His passion was to complete the work of the Father's love which became in Him passion for a freeing love. (Cf. Jn. 3, 16-17). The obedience of Jesus is a relationship of love with his Father, of loving what the Father loves. In this way Jesus deals with life, sacrificing it for the salvation of humanity. (Cf. Flp. 2, 6-11).
This obediential witness of service which Jesus demonstrates is the theological experience referring to all Christian obedience, especially consecrated obedience. Thus the consecrated person obeys the Father as Jesus obeyed him, and delivers his life as Jesus did. Consecrted obedience is based upon the firm rock of the divine will, manifested in Christ. One is obedient as was Jesus...nothing more, nothing less.
“Obedience as a Gospel virtue consists in listening to (ob-audire) and doing the will of God in, imitation of the Lord Jesus.” (R.I. 38; Serm. 296,8). “In the Augustinian concept of community, in which all are “fellow servants” of the one Lord, both the superior and those who are not superiors are subject to obedience, even though in different ways.” (R.I.38). Authority means enabling, promoting. Each must be understood as a service. Obedience as well as authority are important for guaranteeing unity and harmony in the community, promoting the search for God and maintaining the common good above personal interests. (R.I. 39). For our Father (Augustine) obdience, more than an act of faith, is an act of love. (Cf. Reg. 7,4; R.I. 40). This friendly relationship can be called shared responsibility, which implies a relationship between a brother and authority as much as between brother and brother (R.I. 40). Obedience is a relational act and one of interpersonal communication. (R.I. 41). In this way, we are all called to seek together the will of God. In this search for God's will, responsably and corresponsably, each person must conform to the diversity of personal charisms; we are all committed to this. The diversity of functions of the ONE BODY, whose head is Christ, must be experienced in communion and solidarity.
If, according to our charism, obedience is synonomous with corresponsibility, it is necessary to learn how to work as a team. Our Constitutions, the internal documents of the Order, the Ratio Institutionis, etc., demand this. There is no other way of responding to the will of God. Obedience “can only be fully understood if it is viewed with the logic of love, of intimacy with God, of one's definitive belonging to Him, who makes us finally free” (The Service of Authority and Obedience, number 6).
This does not mean that we are a community without a leader and without direction. We are a formed community in which there is a) an authority which directs, listens, animates, is concerned, lives the charsim, etc., according to the Rule and Constitutions, and b) a brotherhood which is responsive, which corresponds, obeys, listens and is attentive to the needs of others and of authority itself. But both are services which are generous, committed through llove, sensitive to dialogue with others and with God, and to ongoing discernment.
7. Recovering an asceticism which is “ever ancient and ever new”. The time of initial formation is a time of “testing”. A vocation must be tested, especially before making solemn profession. Very dangerous are both excesses in asceticism and the lack of acesticism. We need a new aceticism in formation and in the life of religious. Besides being an anthropological necessity (struggle, sacrifice, limitations, resistance, among other things), is is a Christian necessity: living more consciously the mystery of the passion, death and resurrection of Jesus. The Paschal Mystery, whose first stage passes necessarily through the cross, must be the nucleus of the formation program, a font of life and maturity. This program does not age and does not go out of fashion. The ascesis inherent in religious life seeks, among other things, time, silence and solitude, listening and absorption of the Word, of fraternal communion in Christ (P.I. 36-38). In Augustinian asceticism the most important thing is life in community lived with love, simplicity of life, a healthy austerity, concern for common tasks and other things recommended by the Rule and Constitutions (Cf. R.I. 98; 36).
Not just any form of asceticism is of value. The “new asceticism of always” must touch upon discipline in work and study, valor in the face of adversity, an attitude able to face difficulties, the use of time, of money and of the media (TV, Internet), etc. The new name for asceticism is “responsible freedom”, “freedom from the need for gratifcation”, “renunciation of that which is superfluous”... an asceticism which is less mortification and more immersed in daily life; an “asceticism of weakness” which leads “to that which is lesser”.
In summary: just as the person without a form of mysticism has no soul, and without asceticism has no body, so the Order and its communities need these in order to be a faithful reflection of Gospel and charismatic radicalism with the help of the Spirit of the Risen Lord.
FOR PERSONAL AND/OR COMMUNITY REFLECTION
FIRST, SECOND AND THIRD PARTS
1. What experiences of hope or lack of hope have you found in present formation students?
2. Mention three things which show, in the formation process, the putting into practice of the defining characteristics of Augustinian religious life.
3. What real situations make an adequate development of these Augustinian values in our formation students difficult?
4. Comment on this sentence: “Moral authority is the authentic authority of every formator”.
5. How do you create space and opportunities for living these values in your role as formator?
6. What difficulties do you encounter in personal accompaniment of your students?
7. Comment on the following: “No one educates anyone else, but no one is educated alone. We learn together” (Paulo Freire; cf. R.I. 71; P.I. 29).
8. What thoughts come to you from the four criteria presented above?
1. Name five personal characteristics which a consecrated person must have as a concrete expression of having accepted Christ as his fundamental option.
2. Mention and explain three elements which are inconsistent with the radical following of Christ, but which, in fact, exist.
3. How does personal prayer impact common prayer?
4. Present three ways of living and developing a realistic community.
5. Although the “faith-reason” dichotomy has been theoretically defeated, it still exists in practice on the part of some religious. Mention three ways in which to address this situation.
6. If work gives dignity to and humanizes man, and the work of those in formation is study, do you believe that our formation houses give it this importance and promote study adequately. What should be done regarding those students who do not fulfill this responsibilty?
7. At times it seems that we are forming comfort-loving religious. Who and what are responsible for the fact that we are forming students toward a “bourgeois, mediocre life” or an “asphyxiating activism”?
8. Does sexuality continue to be a taboo subject in formation or is it discussed openly and without prejudice?
9. What do you think is missing in initial formation such that authority (priors, superiors) is questioned so much after formation?
10. What does it mean, speaking seriously, that the vows have as their hermeneutical criterion Jesus Christ?
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Benedict XVI (October 18, 2010). Letter to Seminarians.
Cencini, A. (1998). Vocaciones. De la nostalgia a la profecía. Salamanca: Ediciones Sígueme.
Cencini, A. (2002). La formación permanente. Madrid: San Pablo.
Congregación para los Institutos de Vida Consagrada y las Sociedades de Vida Apostólica (1990). Orientaciones sobre la formación en los institutos religiosos. Madrid: Publicaciones Claretianas.
Congregación para los Institutos de Vida Consagrada y las Sociedades de Vida Apostólica (1994). Vida fraterna en comunidad. Madrid: CONFER.
Congregación para los Institutos de Vida Consagrada y las Sociedades de Vida Apostólica (2002). Caminar desde Cristo. Madrid: EDIBESA.
Congregación para los Institutos de Vida Consagrada y las Sociedades de Vida Apostólica (2008). El servicio de la autoridad y la obediencia. Madrid: Publicaciones Claretianas.
John Paul II (1996). Consecrated Life.
John Paul II (2004). I Give You Shepherds.
Luis Vizcaino, Pío De (2008). La ordenación sacerdotal de san Agustín. En Estudio agustiniano, Vol. 45, pp. 59-82.
Order of Saint Augustine (1993). Ratio Institutionis.
Order of Saint Augustine (2008). Rule and Constitutions of the Order of Saint Augustine.
Prada Ramírez, J.R. (2009), Psicologia e Formazione. Principi psicologici utilizzati nella formazione per il sacerdozio e la Vita consacrata (Quaestiones Morales 15), Roma: Editiones Academiae Alfonsianae.
Van Bavel, T.J. (2004). Charism and Community.